Hot News!

Participles and Participial Phrases


Participles and Participial Phrases 

Participles and Participial Phrases


A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.

There are two kinds of participles: present participles, which always end in –ing, and past participles.
Regular verbs have past participles that end in –d or –ed.
Irregular verbs have irregularly formed past participles.

  • the exciting news 
  • a surprising outcome 

[Adding –ing to the verbs excite and surprise makes them present participles that function as adjectives.] 

  • a welcomed guest 
  • polished windows 
  • the worn book 

[Adding –d to the verb welcome and –ed to the verb polish makes them regular past participles.
Worn is the irregular past participle of the verb wear.
All three past participles function as adjectives.]


You will often see participles in verb phrases, such as have been welcoming or is worn.
If a participle appears with these helping verbs, it is not an adjective. It is part of the verb phrase.

Participial Phrases

A participial phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.

Like single-word adjectives, participial phrases modify nouns and pronouns.

  • Watching thoughtfully, Kent noticed a change in the solution’s temperature. [The present participle Watching is modified by thoughtfully. The whole phrase modifies the proper noun Kent.]
  • The moviegoers, concerned for the hero’s safety, sat on the edges of their seats. [The past participle concerned is modified by the prepositional phrase for the hero’s safety. The whole phrase modifies the noun moviegoers.]

Participles and Participial Phrases Quiz

Participles and Participial Phrases Quiz

Using the verb suggested in the parentheses, add a participle to create a participial phrase.
Hint: If you are not sure whether to use a present participle (–ing) or a past participle (–d, –ed), try both forms and choose the one that makes sense in the sentence.

Types of Participles and Participial Phrases

Here are some different types of participles and participial phrases with examples for each:

1. Present participles (-ing):

- The barking dog woke up the whole neighbourhood.
- I saw the girl dancing on the street corner.
- The sunlight shining through the window was blinding.

2. Past participles (-ed, -en):

- The broken vase had shattered all over the floor.
- The stolen car was found abandoned by the police.
- The letter written by the professor was full of errors.

3. Perfect participles (-ed/en + having):

- Having lost all her money, she was forced to sell her house.
- Having finished the exam, the students breathed a sigh of relief.
- Having won the award, he was recognized as the best in his field.

4. Absolute participial phrases (noun + participle):

- The sun having set, the sky turned dark.
- His arm broken, he couldn't play in the football game.
- The rain having stopped, the children went outside to play.

5. Adjectival participial phrases (which modify a noun or pronoun):

- The excited children ran around the playground.
- The scary movie kept me up all night.
- The broken window needed to be fixed.
Mr. ‏El-Sayed Ramadan ‎ ‎


No comments
Post a Comment