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Plurals of Nouns

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Plurals of Nouns

Plurals of Nouns


Remembering the following rules will help you spell the plural forms of nouns.

(1) For most nouns, add s.

SINGULAR 
  • brick 
  • eye 
  • lizard 
  • Smith 
  • word
PLURAL 
  • brick
  • eye
  • lizard
  • Smith
  • words
(2) For nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh, add es.

SINGULAR 
  • boss 
  • mix 
  • Gomez 
  • church 
  • wish 
PLURAL 
  • bosses 
  • mixes 
  • Gomezes 
  • churches 
  • wishes

TIP

Plurals of Nouns Tip

If the plural form of a word has one more syllable than the singular form, then the plural word is probably spelled with es.

EXAMPLE 
The singular word pinch has one syllable. The plural word pinches has two syllables: pinch•es. The plural word pinches is formed by adding es to the singular word pinch.

(3) For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel, add s.

SINGULAR 
  • boy 
  • journey
  • tray 
PLURAL 
  • boy
  • journeys 
  • trays

(4) For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i and add es.

SINGULAR 
  • mutiny 
  • penny 
  • sky 
PLURAL 
  • mutinies 
  • pennies 
  • skies

(5) For some nouns ending in f or fe, add s. For others, change the f or fe to v and add es.

SINGULAR 
  • roo
  • safe 
  • leaf 
  • wife 
  • whar
PLURAL 
  • roofs 
  • safe
  • leaves 
  • wives 
  • wharfs or wharves

(6) For nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s.

SINGULAR 
  • igloo 
  • patio 
  • radio 
  • stereo 
PLURAL 
  • igloos 
  • patios 
  • radios 
  • stereos

(7) For many nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es.

SINGULAR 
  • hero 
  • potato 
  • tomato 
  • veto 
PLURAL 
  • heroes 
  • potatoes 
  • tomatoes 
  • vetoes 
EXCEPTIONS 
  • pianos 
  • solos 
  • egos 
  • photos

NOTE

Plurals of Nouns Note

Most words that refer to music and end in o form the plural by adding s. If you are unsure of how a word forms the plural, look the word up in a dictionary.

(8) The plurals of a few nouns are formed irregularly.

SINGULAR 
  • child 
  • louse 
  • tooth 
  • woman 
PLURAL 
  • children 
  • lice 
  • teeth 
  • women

(9) For a few nouns, the singular and the plural forms are the same.

SINGULAR 
  • aircraft 
  • deer 
  • pliers 
  • sheep 
PLURAL 
  • aircraft 
  • deer 
  • pliers 
  • sheep

(10) For most compound nouns, form the plural of only the last word of the compound.

SINGULAR 
  • doorbell 
  • picture window 
  • five-year-old 
PLURAL 
  • doorbells 
  • picture windows 
  • five-year-olds

(11) For compound nouns in which one of the words is modified by the other word or words, form the plural of the noun modified.

SINGULAR 
  • brother-in-law 
  • editor in chief 
  • bird-watcher 
PLURAL 
  • brothers-in-law 
  • editors in chief 
  • bird-watchers

(12) For some nouns borrowed from other languages, the plural is formed as in the original language.

A few nouns borrowed from other languages have two acceptable plural forms.

SINGULAR 
  • alumnus 
  • criterion 
PLURAL 
  • alumni 
  • criteria or criterions

(13) To form the plurals of numerals, most uppercase letters, symbols, and most words referred to as words, add an s or both an apostrophe and an s.

SINGULAR 
  • 20 
  • C 
  • if 
PLURAL 
  • 20s or 20’s 
  • Cs or C’s 
  • $s or $’s 
  • ifs or if’s
author-img
Mr. ‏El-Sayed Ramadan ‎ ‎

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