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Principal Parts of Verbs

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Principal Parts of Verbs

Principal Parts of Verbs


The Principal Parts of Verbs

Every verb can take different forms to show when the verb’s action or state of being happened. The main forms of a verb are called its principal parts.

The principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle. All other verb forms are formed from these principal parts.

In the following chart, all helping verbs are shown in brackets because present participles and past participles cannot be used as verbs unless accompanied by helping verbs.

BASE FORM PRESENT PARTICIPLE PAST  PAST PARTICIPLE
trick [is] tricking tricked [have] tricked
marry [is] marrying married [have] married
go [is] going went [have] gone

Regular Verbs

All verbs form the present participle by adding –ing to the base form.

BASE FORM  PRESENT PARTICIPLE
spray [is] spraying
organize
[is] organizing
swing
[is] swinging

A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding –d or –ed to its base form.

BASE FORM PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
prepare prepared [have] prepared
follow followed [have] followed

REMINDER

Principal Parts of Verbs REMINDER


Do not leave off the –d or –ed from the past or past participle forms of a regular verb.

NONSTANDARD 
  • Betty use to put her toys away when she was suppose to do so. 
STANDARD 
  • Betty used to put her toys away when she was supposed to do so.

Irregular Verbs

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some way other than by adding –d or –ed to its base form.

Irregular verbs form their past and past participle forms in one of the following ways:
  1. changing vowels 
  2. changing vowels and consonants 
  3. changing consonants 
  4. making no change
BASE FORM PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
win won [have] won [The i in win changes to o.]
build built [have] built [The d in build changes to t.]
do did [have] done [Vowels and consonants in do change.]
spread spread [have] spread [There is no change to spread.]

REMINDER

reminder


All verbs form the present participle by adding –ing to the base form of the verb.

VERB 
  • begin 
  • forsake 
PRESENT PARTICIPLE 
  • [is] beginning 
  • [is] forsaking

Avoid the following common errors:

Principal Parts of Verbs Common Errors


  1. Using the past form of an irregular verb with a helping verb
    NONSTANDARD
    Todd has broke your record.
    STANDARD
    Todd broke your record. 
  2. Using the past participle of a verb without a helping verb
    NONSTANDARD
    We seen the races between you.
    STANDARD
    We have seen the races between you. 
  3. Adding –d, –ed, or –t to the base form of an irregular verb
    NONSTANDARD
    Todd breaked your record.
    STANDARD
    Todd broke your record.
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Mr. ‏El-Sayed Ramadan ‎ ‎

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