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Prefixes and Suffixes

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Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes and Suffixes


A prefix is a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning.
A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning.

1. When adding a prefix, do not change the spelling of the original word.

EXAMPLES 
  • un + important  unimportant 
  • mis + spell  misspell

2. When adding the suffix –ness or –ly, do not change the spelling of the original word.

EXAMPLES 
  • careless + ness  carelessness 
  • love + ly  lovely

If a word ends in y, you may need to change the y to i before adding –ness or –ly. For most words that have two or more syllables and end in y, change the y to i before adding –ness or –ly.

EXAMPLES 
  • messy + ness  messiness 
  • happy + ly  happily

3. Drop the final silent e before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.

4. Keep the final silent e before adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.

A silent e is not pronounced when you say the word.

EXAMPLES 
  • imagine + able  imaginable [The suffix –able begins with a vowel, so the final silent e is dropped.] 
  • awe + some  awesome [The suffix –some begins with a consonant, so the final silent e is not dropped.]

5. For words ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i before adding any suffix that does not begin with i.

EXAMPLES 
  • steady + ly  steadily [The suffix –ly does not begin with i.] 
  • classify + ing  classifying [The suffix –ing begins with i.]

6. For words ending in y preceded by a vowel, keep the y when adding a suffix.

EXAMPLE 
  • employ + ment  employment [The y follows the vowel o.]

7. Double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel if the word both
(a) has only one syllable or has the accent on the final syllable and
(b) ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel.

EXAMPLES 
  • swim + ing  swimming [Swim has only one syllable and ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. The final consonant is doubled.] 
  • break + able  breakable [Break has only one syllable, but it does not end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. The final consonant is not doubled.]
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Mr. ‏El-Sayed Ramadan ‎ ‎

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