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Lie and Lay, Sit and Set, Rise and Raise

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Lie and Lay, Sit and Set, Rise and Raise

Lie and Lay, Sit and Set, Rise and Raise

Lie and Lay

The verb lie means “to rest,” “to recline,” or “to be in a certain place.” Lie does not take a direct object.
The verb lay means “to put [something] in a place.” Lay generally takes a direct object.

BASE FORM PRESENT PARTICIPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
lie [is] lying lay [have] lain
lay [is] laying laid [have] laid

EXAMPLES 
  • Fran’s scrapbook lay on her desk. [The verb lay means “rested” and does not have a direct object.] 
  • Fran laid the scrapbook on her desk. [The verb laid means “put” and has a direct object, scrapbook.]

Sit and Set

The verb sit means “to be in a seated, upright position” or “to be in a place.” Sit seldom takes a direct object.
The verb set means “to put [something] in a place.” Set usually takes a direct object.

BASE FORM PRESENT PARTICIPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
 sit  [is] sitting  sat  [have] sat
 set  [is] setting  set  [have] set

EXAMPLES 
  • A small gift sat on the table. [Sat means “was in a place” and has no direct object.] 
  • Morgan set a gift nearby. [Set means “put” and has a direct object, gift.]

Rise and Raise

The verb rise means “to go up” or “to get up.” Rise does not take a direct object.
The verb raise means “to lift up” or “to cause [something] to rise.” Raise usually takes a direct object.

BASE FORM PRESENT PARTICIPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
 rise  [is] rising  rose  [have] risen
 raise  [is] raising  raised  [have] raised

EXAMPLES 
  • A heron rose into the air. [Rose has no direct object and means “went up.”] 
  • It raised its wings. [Raised means “lifted up” and has a direct object, wings.]
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Mr. ‏El-Sayed Ramadan ‎ ‎

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